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11AEMPA - Australia's Shame (2016) - Documentary Study: Home
Human Rights in Australia by Healey, JHuman rights recognise the inherent value of every person, regardless of our respective backgrounds, where we live, what we look like, what we think or what we believe. These rights are based on universal principles of dignity, equality and mutual respect, and are shared across cultures, religions and philosophies. Human rights are about being treated fairly, treating others fairly and having the ability to make choices in our daily lives. Australia is currently bidding for a seat on the United Nations Human Rights Council, however its own human rights record is not without controversy. What are Australia's international and domestic human rights obligations and how are they being addressed in relation to a number of high profile issues such as asylum seeker detention, racial discrimination, free speech, indigenous advancement, juvenile incarceration, disability rights, gender equality and same-sex marriage? Does Australia need to lift its game on human rights if it is to be taken seriously on the international stage?
Call Number: 323.0994 HUM
Publication Date: 2018
Rights of Children and Young People by Healey, JChildren and young people have a fundamental right to be heard and taken seriously about matters affecting them. They have the same general human rights as adults, but also possess specific rights that recognise their special needs and potential. This book explains how these rights are set out in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child - the most widely ratified human rights treaty in history. It also examines the state of children's rights in Australia, where there have been some positive developments, but also a number of critical issues and mixed results. The latest progress reports recommend that Australia improves its treatment of vulnerable children in certain areas, including reducing youth detention, raising the age of criminal responsibility, supporting youth mental health, advancing outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, caring for asylum seeker and refugee children, addressing child abuse and neglect, and eliminating youth poverty. What are the rights of parents in relation to raising their children, and why is it still legal for adults to hit children as punishment? There is still a gap between the rights Australia has promised vulnerable children and how those rights are implemented. Are the human rights of our children and young people at risk?
Call Number: 323.352 RIG
Publication Date: 2021
We Are All Born Free by Amnesty InternationalThe Universal Declaration of Human Rights was signed on 10th December 1948. It was compiled after World War Two to declare and protect the rights of all people from all countries. This beautiful collection, published 60 years on, celebrates each declaration with an illustration by an internationally-renowned artist or illustrator and is the perfect gift for children and adults alike. Published in association with Amnesty International, with a foreword by David Tennant and John Boyne. Includes art work contributions from Axel Scheffler, Peter Sis, Satoshi Kitamura, Alan Lee, Polly Dunbar, Jackie Morris, Debi Gliori, Chris Riddell, Catherine and Laurence Anholt and many more!
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Codes And Conventions Of Documentary:
The voiceover will usually be authoritative in some way, encouraging the audience to think that they either have some kind of specialist knowledge or ‘the right’ opinions that people should pay attention to.
'REAL' FOOTAGE OF EVENTS:
Documentary is essentially seen as ‘non-fiction’ although there are debates around this.
However, a convention of documentary is that all events presented to us are to be seen as ‘real’ by the audience.
Documentarians often go to great lengths to convince us that the footage is real and unaltered in anyway, although editing and voiceover can affect the ‘reality’ we, as viewers, see.
TECHNICALITY OF REALISM:
Including ‘natural’ sound and lighting. For example when the guards ask "Is this recording?"
ARCHIVE FOOTAGE AND STILLS:
To aid authenticity and to add further information which the film maker may be unable to obtain themselves.
INTERVIEWS WITH 'EXPERTS':
Used to authenticate the views expressed in the documentary. Sometimes, they will disagree with the message of the documentary, although the film maker will usually disprove them in some way.
For example, when Barrister John B Lawrence describes the youth justice systems as based on “deliberate, punitive and cruel policy”
USE OF TEXT AND TITLES:
Watch out for the use of words on screen to anchor images in time and space. Labels, dates etc tend to be believed unquestioningly and are a quick and cheap way of conveying information.
Foe example, each expert tends to be named with their position each time they speak.
Listen out for the use of non-diegetic sound. Has music been added? Why what effects does it have? Is sound used as a bridge between scenes and if so what meanings are made?
Non-diegetic sound can be called commentary or non-literal sound.
Non-diegetic sound is any type of sound that does not specifically exist within the world of the film itself. In other words, it’s the type of sound that characters in a film are not able to hear, but that we can. In fact, all non-diegetic sound is added to a film in the post-production phase.
Commentary sound is included in movies for a wide variety of reasons. They can include:
To communicate messages directly between the filmmaker and the audience
To create mood or atmosphere
To foster suspense
To drive home emotional impact
To clue the audience in to major themes without directly using the characters
Not just reconstructions of events that happened in the past but also setting up 'typical' scenes. So if you want to quickly convey 'classroom' you might ask a class to put their hands up like there's a lesson going on and the teacher's just asked a question. Strictly speaking what you're showing is not 'true' the teacher didn't ask a question, but it is a way of cheaply getting footage a crew might have had to wait fifteen minutes for if they had just waited for it to happen 'naturally'. There is an issue here however because if crews make a habit of using set ups they will only be using images of 'reality' that audiences already recognise (confirming stereotypes perhaps) and producing fresh images/ ideas about 'reality' will be impossible. There's a sort of vicious cycle here. If I show you radically different images from inside a school you may reject them as atypical or 'unreal' but if I can only offer you a 'reality' you already know about how can I change your opinions?
Things like mise en scene and props. Is that doctor any less a doctor if she's not in a white coat and wearing a stethoscope? Has someone been ambushed in the street to make them look shifty?
Is the mother any less distraught if she doesn't have a physical memorial in her home for her dead son?
A online collection of magazine and newspaper articles as well as interview transcripts, images and videos. You can sort your results by publication, full text versions and even date. Online databases are available through the portal and many require specific login details.
This means if you are 10 or older, and you commit a criminal offence, you can be charged by the police and convicted in court. Between the ages of 10 and 14 years old, the police must prove in court that you understood you were doing the wrong thing. If you are over 14 years old, the law says you can be held responsible for your actions, even if you didn't actually know that you were doing the wrong thing or were breaking the law.
The Intensive Supervision Unit is meant to be a place of last resort, where under an order the boy would have been entitled to exercise three times for 30 minutes each a day, or at least one hour a day, according to the Young Offenders Act.
Under the law Western Australia, young people under the age of 18 are dealt with using a special youth justice system to make sure that they are treated fairly.
The special laws that cover how to treat a young offender do not cover certain crimes. Some examples of offences which ARE covered include:
Driving without displaying P plates,
Causing damage to a fountain at a park,
Drinking alcohol with friends at a park,
Stealing cattle from a farm,
Breaking and entering into a house and stealing.
A caution is an oral or written notice from a police officer.
A police officer may give a caution to a young person if they have committed or are alleged to have committed a minor crime covered by the Act. A police officer may decide not to issue a caution if they think it is not in the interest of justice to do so.
When a police officer is deciding whether or not to give a caution, any past offences and the seriousness of the offence will be taken into consideration.
JJTs specify terms for the young person to comply with (also known as an ‘action plan’). The action plan may include a formal apology, agreeing to be assessed for counselling, a voluntary work task, or paying a sum of money. The type of punishment will take into account the young person’s age and maturity, and any conditions that have been set by their family.
These types of punishments are intended to promote the development of the young offender within their family and to help the offender accept responsibility for their offences. It seeks to deal with the reasons why a young person has committed an offence in order to prevent them from offending in future.
Children and young people aged 10 to 17 years can be charged under the WA Criminal Code. In 2018–19, there were 5,989 children and young people aged 10 to 17 years who were proceeded against (both court and non-court actions) for one or more offences in WA.3 This represents approximately 2.3 per cent of the population of WA’s children and young people aged 10 to 17 years (257,000). The most common principal offence in WA was theft (457.8 per 100,000 young people) followed by acts intended to cause injury (451.9 per 100,000 young people) and unlawful entry with intent (413.0 per 100,000 young people).
Australian Bureau of Statistics:
There were 44,496 offenders aged between 10 and 17 years proceeded against by police in 2020–21, at a rate of 1,785 offenders per 100,000 persons aged between 10 and 17 years.
Both the number of offenders and the offender rate dropped to the lowest recorded in the time series.
Law and Justice: Contact with the justice system:
17% of all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youth reported that they had been arrested in the last five years
youth who had been arrested in the last five years were more likely to have been a victim of physical violence and to have experienced high or very high levels of psychological distress than those who had not.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait IslanderYouth who had been arrested in the last five years were more likely than those who had not to:
‘NT royal commission: How did youth detention and child protection systems break so badly?’ n.d., ABC Premium News, viewed 4 August 2022, <https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=azh&AN=P6S126096268117&site=ehost-live>.
‘Youth detention royal commission: “Systemic failures” occurred, says former minister’ n.d., ABC Premium News, viewed 4 August 2022, <https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=azh&AN=P6S097012365017&site=ehost-live>.